Geomorphology grade 12 questions and answers pdf

Geomorphology grade 12 questions and answers pdf: Introduction, How to access the questions papers, subtopics and how to prepare for exams.


Geomorphology is the study of the Earth’s landforms, their processes, and how they change over time. As a Grade 12 student, you will be required to study this subject and understand its concepts in preparation for your final exams. To assist you in your studies, there are several resources available to you, including past question papers and answers.

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How to prepare for exams:

To prepare for your Geomorphology exams, you should:

  1. Attend all your classes and pay attention to your teacher’s explanations.
  2. Read and understand the textbook and study guide.
  3. Make summaries of each subtopic and review them regularly.
  4. Use past question papers to practice and test your knowledge.
  5. Join study groups or find a tutor to help you with difficult concepts.

How to access the question papers:

Past question papers for Grade 12 Geomorphology are available from various sources, including your school, the Department of Basic Education website, and online study platforms. You can also access past papers from previous years to help you prepare for your exams.


Geomorphology is a broad subject with several subtopics that you need to study for your exams. These subtopics include:

  1. Geomorphic processes – this subtopic covers the processes that shape the Earth’s landforms, including erosion, weathering, and deposition.
  2. Landforms – this subtopic covers the different types of landforms found on Earth, including mountains, valleys, plateaus, and plains.
  3. Mapping – this subtopic covers the methods used to map landforms and the different types of maps that are used in geomorphology.
  4. Geomorphic hazards – this subtopic covers the hazards associated with landforms, including landslides, floods, and earthquakes.

Sample questions for grade 12 geography geomorphology notes pdf

Geomorphology grade 12 questions and answers pdf download, Geomorphology grade 12 questions and answers pdf term 1m geography grade 12 questions and answers pdf

Activity 2.1

  1. List three important things that should be present for water to infiltrate into the soil. (3 × 2 = 6)
  2. Describe how groundwater supplies are replenished (filled up). (1 × 2 = 2)
  3. Why is it important to manage (look after) groundwater? (1 × 2 = 2)

In the exam, you may be given a diagram and asked to identify which aspect or factor has affected the runoff or infiltration.

Answers to activity 2.1

  1. Porous rock, time for water to infiltrate (steepness of the slope), more vegetation (6)
  2. Groundwater supplies are replenished by precipitation. (2)
  3. South Africa has a shortage of water.
    To ensure we have a sustainable supply of water. (2)

Activity 2.2
Refer to drainage basins A and B in Figure 2.2.2C and the flow hydrograph showing line graphs D and E after a period of rainfall, to answer the following questions.

  1. The rivers in drainage basin A flow all year round. What type of river would this be classified as? (1 × 2 = 2)
  2. Graph D in the flow hydrograph shows the runoff of drainage basin A after a period of rain.
    1. Define the term ‘lag time’. (1 × 2 = 2)
    2. How would the lag time change if massive deforestation were to occur in drainage basin A where D was recorded? (1 × 2 = 2)
    3. Justify your answer in question b). (2 × 2 = 4)
    4. Name another factor which could occur and have the same impact on the lag time as mentioned in question b). (1 × 2 = 2)
    1. State the drainage density of drainage basin B. (1 × 2 = 2)
    2. Describe THREE possible causes for the drainage density found in drainage basin B. (3 × 2 = 6)
Answers to activity 2.2

  1. Permanent river (2)
    1. The difference in time between when it rains and when the peak flow discharge occurs. (2)
    2. Lag time will be shorter (2)
    3. There is less vegetation, so there is more runoff (4)
    4. Steep slope/Heavy rainfall/Lots of rain (any 1)(2)
    1. High drainage density (2)
    2. Heavy rainfall causing more runoff
      Steep slopes causing more runoff
      Very little vegetation causing more runoff
      Lots of rain so the ground cannot hold any more water causing more runoff (any 3)(6)

Complete activity 2.2 to practise the concepts you have learnt so far in this chapter.

Activity 2.3
Identify and briefly describe the drainage patterns in Figure 2.2.3G below.
(3 × 4 = 12)
[12] 12

Answers to activity 2.3

  1. Dendritic: Looks like the branches of a tree with tributaries joining the main river at acute angles. (4)
  2. Trellis: Parallel streams with short tributaries joining at right angles (90°). (4)
  3. Radial: Streams flow outwards from one raised central point (dome or volcano).  (4)

Activity 2.4

  1. Draw a longitudinal profile of a river (from source to mouth) and show the upper, middle and lower courses. (1 × 4 = 4)
  2. List two features of the upper course of a river. (2 × 2 = 4)
  3. Describe a river in its lower course. (2 × 2 = 4)
  4. Describe one difference between the river channel in the upper course and the lower course. (2 × 2 = 4)
Answers to activity 2.4

  1. 18
  2. Steep V-shaped valley
    Narrow channel
    Interlocking spurs
    Gorges  (any 2) (4)
  3. Wide flat floodplain
    Wide valley
    Very wide channel
    Ox-bow lakes  (any 2) (4)
  4. Narrow channel in the upper course
    Wide channel in the lower course  (4)

Activity 2.5
Figure 2.2.5K (right) shows a plan view of an area before river capture has occurred. Redraw the rivers after river capture has occurred.
On the diagram you have drawn, label the resultant features of river capture.
[6] 22

South Africa is not a water rich country.

Activity 2.6
Use the topographical map of Nelspruit 2530BD at the back of this study guide to answer the following questions.

  1. The contour interval of this topographical map is…
    1. 1000 metres
    2. 50 000 metres
    3. 25 metres
    4. 20 metres
  2. The Crocodile River is a/an…
    1. Periodic river
    2. Exotic river
    3. Permanent river
    4. Seasonal river
      (2 × 2 = 4) [4]
Answers to activity 2.6

  1. D
  2. C  [4]


Grade 12 Geomorphology is a challenging subject that requires you to study and understand the Earth’s landforms and their processes. By accessing past question papers, understanding the subtopics, and preparing thoroughly for your exams, you can achieve success in this subject.

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