Geography Grade 12 Climate and weather questions and answers PDF

Geography Grade 12 Climate and weather questions and answers PDF: Introduction, How to access the questions papers, subtopics and how to prepare for exams.

Introduction to geography Grade 12 Climate and weather:

Geography Grade 12 Climate and Weather is an important topic that focuses on understanding the atmospheric conditions that affect our planet. This topic covers various subtopics such as climate zones, weather patterns, atmospheric circulation, and the impact of climate change. To help students prepare for their exams, there are various question papers and answer guides available in PDF format.

Geography Grade 12 Climate and weather possible questions

  1. How do air masses influence weather patterns? ; When winds move air masses, they carry their weather conditions (heat or cold, dry or moist) from the source region to a new region. When the air mass reaches a new region, it might clash with another air mass that has a different temperature and humidity. This can create a severe storm.
  2. Discuss the causes and effects of global warming; The burning of fossil fuels, cutting down of trees etc. causes the temperature of the earth to increase. High temperature changes the weather patterns, causing the dry areas to get drier and wet areas to get wetter. Thus, increasing the frequency of disasters like floods, droughts etc.
  3. Explain how atmospheric pressure affects the formation of weather systems.; Atmospheric pressure is an indicator of weather. When a low-pressure system moves into an area, it usually leads to cloudiness, wind, and precipitation. High-pressure systems usually lead to fair, calm weather.
  4. What are the different types of clouds and how do they form?: Image result for What are the different types of clouds and how do they form?
    Clouds are classified according to appearance and height. Based on appearance, there are two major types: Clouds of vertical development, formed by the condensation of rising air; and clouds that are layered, formed by condensation of air without vertical movement.
  5. Describe the factors that influence precipitation patterns; The main factors that affect precipitation include prevailing winds, the presence of mountains, and seasons. Prevailing winds carry warm, moist air or cool air over the land. A mountain range in the path of prevailing winds will influence where precipitation falls.
  6. How do ocean currents affect weather patterns? ; Ocean currents act much like a conveyer belt, transporting warm water and precipitation from the equator toward the poles and cold water from the poles back to the tropics. Thus, currents regulate global climate, helping to counteract the uneven distribution of solar radiation reaching Earth’s surface.
  7. What is El Niño and how does it affect global weather patterns?; El Niño causes the Pacific jet stream to move south and spread further east. During winter, this leads to wetter conditions than usual in the Southern U.S. and warmer and drier conditions in the North. El Niño also has a strong effect on marine life off the Pacific coast.
  8. How does the greenhouse effect impact global climate patterns?; Certain gases in the atmosphere absorb energy, slowing or preventing the loss of heat to space. Those gases are known as “greenhouse gases.” They act like a blanket, making the earth warmer than it would otherwise be. This process, commonly known as the “greenhouse effect,” is natural and necessary to support life.
  9. Explain the causes and effects of the ozone hole; Ozone layer depletion is the thinning of the ozone layer present in the upper atmosphere. This happens when the chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere come in contact with ozone and destroy the ozone molecules. One chlorine can destroy 100,000 molecules of ozone. It is destroyed more quickly than it is created.
  10. Discuss the impact of climate change on natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods; With increasing global surface temperatures the possibility of more droughts and increased intensity of storms will likely occur. As more water vapor is evaporated into the atmosphere it becomes fuel for more powerful storms to develop.
  11. What is the difference between weather and climate, and how are they related?; Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere “behaves” over relatively long periods of time. When we talk about climate change, we talk about changes in long-term averages of daily weather.
  12. Explain the role of atmospheric circulation in global climate patterns; Atmospheric circulation transports heat over the surface of the Earth that affects the water cycle, including the formation of clouds and precipitation events. The movement of air masses brings us our daily weather, and long-term patterns in circulation determine regional climate and ecosystems.
  13. Describe the factors that influence temperature patterns; The temperature characteristics of a region are influenced by natural factors such as latitude, elevation and the presence of ocean currents. The precipitation characteristics of a region are influenced by factors such as proximity to mountain ranges and prevailing winds.
  14. What is the difference between adiabatic and diabatic heating and cooling?; First, diabatic processes are the result of a heat exchange, whereas adiabatic processes are the result of contraction (from a lot of pressure being exerted on an air parcel) and expansion (from less pressure being exerted on an air parcel). Second, diabatic cooling or heating is not reversible.
  15. Discuss the causes and effects of acid rain; Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air. These substances can rise very high into the atmosphere, where they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants, known as acid rain.
  16. Explain how the Coriolis effect influences weather patterns; the result of Earth’s rotation on weather patterns and ocean currents. The Coriolis effect makes storms swirl clockwise in the Southern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
  17. Describe the factors that contribute to the formation of tornadoes; The key atmospheric ingredients that lead to tornado potential are instability – warm moist air near the ground, with cooler dry air aloft and wind shear – a change in wind speed and/or direction with height.
  18. How do mountain ranges influence weather patterns?: When the moist, oceanic air encounters the mountains it begins to rise. The rising air cools as it moves up and over the mountains, and much of its moisture condenses, forming clouds and precipitation. As the air continues moving to the east, it plunges down the other side of the mountains, warms up, and dries out.
  19. Discuss the impact of climate change on agriculture and food production; Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality. For example, projected increases in temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, changes in extreme weather events, and reductions in water availability may all
  20. What is the relationship between climate change and sea level rise?; There is a direct relationship between climate change and sea level rise. As our climate warms, sea level rises mainly because of thermal expansion (when water warms up, it expands) and melting of snow, glaciers and ice caps (which increases the volume of ocean water).

How to access the geography Grade 12 Climate and weather question papers:

The question papers for Geography Grade 12 Climate and Weather are available online on various educational websites. Students can also obtain them from their teachers or from the education department in their region. It is important to ensure that the question papers are from a reliable source and that they cover the required subtopics.

Geography Grade 12 Climate and weather Subtopics:

The subtopics covered in Geography Grade 12 Climate and Weather include:

  1. Climate zones and types: This subtopic covers the different climate zones around the world and the characteristics of each type of climate.
  2. Weather patterns: This subtopic covers the different weather patterns such as high and low-pressure systems, fronts, and tropical storms.
  3. Atmospheric circulation: This subtopic covers the various factors that influence atmospheric circulation, such as pressure, temperature, and wind.
  4. Climate change: This subtopic covers the causes and effects of climate change, as well as measures to mitigate its impact.

How to prepare for geography Grade 12 exams:

To prepare for exams on Geography Grade 12 Climate and Weather, students should:

  1. Study the subtopics in detail and understand the key concepts and theories.
  2. Review past exam papers and practice answering questions to become familiar with the format and types of questions.
  3. Create summary notes and mind maps to aid in revision and memorization.
  4. Work through exercises and examples to reinforce understanding.
  5. Seek help from teachers or tutors for any areas of difficulty.


Geography Grade 12 Climate and Weather is an important topic that requires a thorough understanding of the subtopics covered. Students can access question papers and answer guides in PDF format to aid in their exam preparation. By studying the subtopics in detail, reviewing past papers, and practicing exercises, students can prepare themselves for success in their exams.

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