Life science grade 11 term 1
In Life Sciences Grade 11 Term 1, students are typically introduced to the study of living organisms and the fundamental principles of biology. Here are some possible topics that may be covered:
- Introduction to Life Sciences: This may include the scientific method, the characteristics of living organisms, and the hierarchy of organization of life.
- Cells: This includes the structure and function of different types of cells, such as prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, plant and animal cells, and cell division.
- Biomolecules: This includes the four main types of biomolecules, which are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and their structure and function in living organisms.
- Enzymes: This includes the nature of enzymes, how they work, and the factors that affect their activity.
- Nutrition: This includes the different types of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, and how they are obtained and used by living organisms.
- Transport systems: This includes the structure and function of the circulatory system in humans and plants, and the mechanisms of transport in cells.
- Homeostasis: This includes the concept of homeostasis and how it is maintained in the body through different mechanisms.
life sciences grade 11 term 1 notes pdf, life sciences grade 11 pdf, grade 11 life science topics,
Work Schedule (Term 2):
Complete Population ecology
Process of photosynthesis
Importance of photosynthesis
Week 3 (14/04 – 17/04)
Effects of variable amounts of light, carbon dioxide and temperature on rate of photosynthesis
Week 4 (20/04 – 24/04) & Week 5 (28/04 – 30/04)
Process of respiration – aerobic and anaerobic
Week 6 (04/05 – 08/05) – TIME-OUT
Catch up and complete activities
Submit Google Form Class tests and quizzes etc. on the Topic pages.
Get hold of your teacher, touch base, ask questions, raise your concerns, just let them know you are ok, or if you are not ok.
Revise revise revise
1. Biodiversity and classification of micro-organisms
• Microorganisms: basic structure and general characteristics of the following groups (links with Grade 9 and 10):
(Macroscopic organisms in the protista and fungi should only be mentioned – not studied in any detail)
• Mention of the roles that these groups play in maintaining balance in the environment and web of life.
• Symbiotic relationships, including, nitrogen fixing bacteria in plants and E.Coli in the human intestine (link with Grade 10).
• The effect and management of one disease from each of the four groups:
– viruses (rabies, HIV/AIDS, influenza)
– bacteria (blight, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax)
– protists (malaria)
– fungi (rusts, thrush, ringworm, athlete’s foot).
• Immunity, including plants and animals’ immune responses of against the infecting microorganism
• The use of drugs, e.g., antibiotics; effect on microorganisms
• The use of microorganisms to produce medicines (e.g., insulin and antibiotics).
• Traditional technology to produce, e.g., beer, wine and cheese.
2. Biodiversity of plants
Biodiversity of Plants (Focus on the Developmental Lines and Not on In-Depth Studies of Life Cycles. Learners should have a basic understanding of Phylogenetic Trees as reconstructions of evolutionary pathways) and cladograms.
Grouping of bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms according to the presence/absence of:
– vascular tissue (xylem and phloem)
– true leaves and roots
– seeds or spores
Decreasing dependence on water for reproduction from Bryophytes to Angiosperms
Reproduction in Plants
• Asexual and sexual reproduction, name advantages and disadvantages of each.
• Flowers as reproductive structures
Adaptations for pollination through (different pollinators) wind, insects and birds (South African examples only) differences and similarities.
• The Significance of Seeds
– seed banks;
– seeds as a food source; and
– endemic species in South Africa.
3. Biodiversity of animals
Biodiversity of Animals with a focus on six of the major phyla (Focus on the Developmental Lines and Phylogenetic Trees. No Further Details are Required Regarding the Morphology of the Six Phyla).
• The relationship between the body plan and grouping of animals in phyla. The concept of a phylum.
• Six phyla (out of about 30 in the animal kingdom):
• Key features in respect of body plans:
– symmetry and cephalisation;
– the number of tissue layers developed from embryo;
– the number of openings in the gut;
– coelom and blood systems.
• The relationship between body plans and modes of living for each of the six phyla; similarities and differences.
• The role of invertebrates in agriculture and ecosystems (e.g., pollination, decomposition, soil aeration etc.)
4. Population Ecology
• Population Size Immigration, emigration, mortality, births. Fluctuations. Limiting factors and carrying capacity. Logistic and geometric growth curves with phases.
• Interactions in the Environment
– predation: two South African examples of predator- prey relationships: graphs;
– competition: interspecific: for light, space, water, shelter and food; intraspecific: for food, access to mates, water, space, and shelter; survival is determined by access to the above, ecological niches;
– specialisation: competitive exclusion and resource partitioning; discuss one example of coexistence in animals and one example in plants;
– parasitism: two examples from South Africa; one species benefits
– mutualism: two examples from South Africa; both species benefit;
– commensalism: two examples from South Africa.
• Social Organisation: The benefits of herds/flocks (avoidance); packs (hunting); dominance; and the division of tasks (castes) (mention only).
• Community change over time: Succession Primary and secondary succession and possible endpoints depending on environmental fluctuations (mention only).
• Human Population Reasons for exponential growth: – age and gender distributions for different countries, including South Africa; – forecast of South Africa’s population growth over the next twenty years and predict possible consequences for the environment.
2. Activities to be completed in workbook:
Act. 1 Population size (page 270)
Act. 2 Mark-recapture: simulated seed population (page 273)
Act. 3 Estimating the number of weeds on a sports field, by using the quadrat method (page 275)
Act. 4 Population size (page 279)
Act. 5 Looking at logistic growth (page 280-281)
Act. 6 Looking at exponential growth (page 283-284)
Act. 7 Predator-prey relationships (Q2, 3 & 4 page 288-289)
Act. 8 Competition (Q2 page 292-293)
Act. 12 Global human population growth (page 309-310)
Self assessment (page 312)
Mindset – Population Ecology resources
WCED Term 3 Week 6
WCED Term 4 Week 1
Class Test 1: Population Ecology
• process of photosynthesis using words and symbols:
the intake of raw materials, trapping and storing of energy, formation of food in chloroplasts and its storage.
The release of oxygen.
Mention only of light and dark phases (no biochemical details of light and dark phases are required);
• importance of photosynthesis:
release of oxygen, uptake of carbon dioxide from atmosphere, food production (trapping energy);
• effects of variable amounts of light, carbon dioxide and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis (brief discussion together with graphs).
• The role of carbon dioxide enrichment, optimum light and optimum temperatures in greenhouse systems to improve crop yields (link to environmental issues discussed later).
• Role of ATP as an important energy carrier in the cell.
2. Activities to be completed
Act. 1 Testing for starch in leaves (page 147) – watch demonstration provided
Act. 2 Photosynthesis: Investigation 1 (page 148) – watch demonstration provided
Act. 3 Photosynthesis: Investigation 2 (page 148-149)
Act. 4 Photosynthesis Investigation 3 (page 149)
Act. 5 Factors affecting the process of photosynthesis (page 150-151)
Act. 6 Showing that oxygen is a product of photosynthesis (page 152)
Act. 8 The rate of photosynthesis (page 154)
Act. 9 Photosynthesis and changes in carbon dioxide concentration (page 155-156)
Act. 10 Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis (page 156)
Act. 11 The way in which leaves are adapted for photosynthesis (page 157)
Act 12 The effects of light on growth (page 157-158)
Act 13 Growing tomatoes in greenhouses (page 159)
Activity: Self Assessment (page 161)
Mindset: Photosynthesis & Respiration resources
Mindset – Photosynthesis practicals
Mindset – Photosynthesis practicals note & practice questions
Textbook Activities 1 to 13 – Memo
Revision Quiz: Photosynthesis
6. Cellular Respiration
7. Animal Nutrition
The process of respiration and uses of energy for living cells:
– aerobic respiration: in cytoplasm and mitochondria; use words and symbols: glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (no biochemical detail is required);
– anaerobic respiration: production of lactic acid in muscles during exercise; words and symbols (no biochemical detail of process is required);
– The role of anaerobic respiration in the industry, e.g beer brewing and bread making.
A comparison between aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of raw materials required, products and relative amounts of energy released.
Act. 1 Energy and activity (page 194)
Act. 2 Sources of energy (page 194)
Act. 3 The mitochondrion (page 195)
Act. 4 An investigation into respiration (1) (page 197-198)
Act. 5 An investigation into respiration (2) (page 198)
Act. 7 Do germinating seeds release heat energy?(page 199-200)
Act. 8 Anaerobic respiration (page 201)
Act. 9 The process of fermentation (page 201-202)
Act. 11 Anaerobic respiration/fermentation (page 203-204)
Activity: Self Assessment (page 205-207)
Relevant video resources
Mindset: Respiration and photosynthesis resources
Investigation: Heat released during respiration
Class Test 1: Cellular respiration
8. Excretion in humans
The differences in dentition for herbivorous, carnivorous and omnivorous lifestyles in terms of nutritional requirements and energy relationships (link with ecology – food chains).
• Human nutrition
The macro-structure of the alimentary canal and associated organs and the functions of the different parts.
• The Processes of ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion and the significance of each:
– Mechanical or physical digestion: types and functions of different kinds of teeth, processes of chewing. Peristalsis
– Chemical digestion: Enzymes: functions of carbohydrases, proteases and lipases: where produced; substrate, pH and end-products (Specific enzymes need not be named – link to enzyme activity.)
– Absorption: small intestine as a region of most absorption of digested food; adaptations to increase surface area. Structure (to tissue level) and significance of villi. Importance of hepatic portal system in the transport of absorbed food to the liver and then through hepatic vein to the rest of the body
– Assimilation: incorporation of glucose and amino acids into cells, the role of the liver: glucose metabolism, deamination of excess amino acids, and the breakdown of alcohol, drugs and hormones.
• Homeostatic Control
Hormonal control of blood sugar levels.Increase in the number of people affected by diabetes in recent years and brief explanation of diabetes.
The relationships between food intake, energy, growth and health. The importance of a balanced diet and changing requirements due to age, gender and activity levels.
– Different diets due to cultural, religious, personal and health choices, e.g., vegan, vegetarian, halaal, kosher
– Interpret dietary information on food packaging;
– Dietary supplements: for health, sport, beauty and anti-ageing (link to organic and inorganic substances)
– Malnutrition: the reason for and the effects of malnutrition with respect to unbalanced diets (e.g., kwashiorkor), starvation (e.g., marasmus and anorexia), bulimia, food allergies, coronary heart disease, diabetes and obesity.
• Analysis of information in the popular press, or any other sources, with respect to malnutrition.
• Tooth decay related to diet and fluoride in water supplies and its effect on teeth.
• The effects of alcohol and drug abuse and the dangers associated with their misuse.
2. Activities to be completed
Act. 1 How different types of teeth are related to lifestyle (page 163)
Table (page 164)
Act. 3 The structure of the human digestive system (page 168)
Act. 4 The breakdown of food (page 169)
Act. 5 Why are the stomach walls not digested? (page 170)
Act. 6 The process of digestion (page 174)
Act. 7 Illustrating what happens to nutrients (page 174) – complete in workbook over TWO A4 pages.
Act. 8 An investigation into digestion (page 175 – 176)
Act. 9 Diabetes mellitus (page 177)
Act. 10 Essay: The hormonal control of blood glucose (page 177) – VERY IMPORTANT! LEARN!!!
Act. 11 The prevalance of diabetes mellitus in South Africa (page 178)
Act. 12 Energy content of food (page 179)
Act. 13 Nutritional composition of foods (page 181)
Act. 14 Project: Nutritional disorders (page 184) – Select a nutritional disorder from Table 2.2.7 (page 83) and collect the required information as outlined in the activity. Record in your workbooks.
Act. 15 Tooth decay (page 185)
Act. 16 Formal Assessment Task: Nutrient sources (page 187 – 188)
Activity: Self assessment (page 190 – 193)
Textbook Activities – QUESTIONS (For the bananas who left their textbooks at school)
Textbook Activities – MEMO
Mindset Resources: Animal Nutrition
- Informal assessments
Class Test 1: Animal Nutrition
9. Gaseous exchange
2. Activities to be completed
Act. 5 Looking at lungs (page 216 – 218)
Act. 8 Observing breathing (page 219)
Act. 9 Using a model to demonstrate the mechanism of breathing in humans (page 219 – 220)
Act. 10 Exhalation (page 221)
Act. 11 The mechanism of breathing (page 222)
Act. 12 To demonstrate that exhaled air contains carbon dioxide (page 225)
Act. 13 The composition of inhaled and exhaled air (page 225)
Act. 14 The effect of exercise on breathing rate (page 226 – 227)
Act. 15 The rate and depth of breathing (page 227)
Act. 16 Case Study: respiratory diseases (page 231 – 232)
Act. 17 Investigating the effects of smoking (page 232 -233) – QUESTIONS 4&5 ONLY
Act. 18 Physiological adaptations to exercise and altitude (page 235 – 236)
Self assessment (page 238 – 240)
Distinguish between cellular respiration, breathing and gas exchange. The need for gas exchange.
• Requirements of efficient Gas Exchange Organs:
– large surface area
– well ventilated
– transport system.
• Human Gas Exchange:
The structure (macro and tissue level), location, adaptations and functioning of the ventilation system:
– intercostal muscles
Ventilation of the lungs:
– gaseous exchange in alveoli;
– the transport of gases around the body;
– gaseous exchange in tissues; and
– composition of inspired air vs. expired air- analyse data.
Brief mention of the homeostatic control of breathing.
• Diseases and abnormalities: causes symptoms and treatment of TB in South Africa. (Link to biodiversity – microorganisms)
Brief study of other respiratory diseases:
– hay fever
– lung cancer.
The effects of smoking on gaseous exchange. Smoking legislation in South Africa.
• Brief mention of artificial respiration and the effect of mouth to mouth resuscitation.
• The effects of altitude on gaseous exchange, e.g., the performance of athletes in Johannesburg versus Durban or Cape Town.Gr11 Gas exchange CC.pdf
Gaseous Exchange – Notes (cl)
3. Relevant video resources
Operation Ouch – The diaphragm
How do lungs work – Emma Bryce
Intubation and Mechanical Ventilation
Understanding the fundamental life process of breathing – How Human Respiratory System Works
3D Medical Mechanics of breathing
4. Revision resources
5. Informal assessme
10. Human Impact on the Environment
Causes and consequences of the following (relate to conditions and circumstances in South Africa):
• The atmosphere and climate change
– carbon dioxide emissions;
– concept of ‘carbon footprint’ and the need to reduce the carbon footprint;
– greenhouse effect and global warming: desertification, drought and floods;
– methane emissions;
– ozone depletion.
– Construction of dams
– Destruction of wetlands
– Poor farming practices
– Droughts and floods
– Exotic plantations and depletion of water table
– Boreholes and effects on aquifers
– Cost of water
– Water for domestic use, industry, agriculture and mining: pollution, diseases, eutrophication and algal bloom.
– The effect of mining on quality of water
– Thermal pollution
– The need for water purification and recycling
– Alien plants, e.g., Eichornia
• Food Security (link with population ecology dynamics)
– human exponential population growth;
– droughts and floods (climate change);
– poor farming practices: monoculture; pest control, loss of topsoil and the need for fertilisers;
– alien plants and reduction of agricultural land;
– the loss of wild varieties: impact on gene pools;
– genetically engineered foods;
• Loss of Biodiversity (the sixth extinction)
– habitat destruction: farming methods, e.g., overgrazing and monoculture, golf estates, mining, urbanisation, deforestation; loss of wetlands and grasslands;
– poaching, e.g., for rhino horn, ivory and ‘bush meat’;
– alien plant invasions: control using mechanical, chemical and biological methods; and
– indigenous knowledge systems and the sustainable use of the environment e.g., devils’ claw, rooibos, fynbos, the African potato (Hypoxis) and Hoodia.
• Solid Waste Disposal
– managing dumpsites for rehabilitation and prevention of soil and water pollution;
– the need for recycling;
– using methane from dumpsites for domestic use: heating and lighting; and
– safe disposal of nuclear waste.
Human Impact – Notes (cl)
Act. 1 The carbon footprint of different socio-economic groups (page 315 – 316)
Act. 2 Deforestation (page 318 – 320)
Act. 3 What is the Greenhouse Effect? (page 321)
Act. 5 The effects of ozone depletion on a South African community (page 330)
Self assessment (page 332)
Act. 6 Dams and wetlands (page 336)
Self assessment (page 351)
Act. 11 Food waste (page 358 – 359)
Act. 12 Food security (page 359)
Self assessment (page 360)
Self assessment (page 373)
Act. 17 Essay: Human influences on the environment (page 380)
Self assessment (page 381)
3. Relevant video resources
Global warming 101 – National Geographic
What is Climate Change – Start Here
Who is responsible for Climate change?
GCSE BIOLOGY – Pollution and Global warming
What is food security?
World’s water crisis
A video about Landfills
Exposing Australia’s recycling lie | 60 Minutes Australia
How Sweden is turning its waste into gold
Food waste is the world’s dumbest problem
EXAM PRACTICE QUESTIONS BOOKLET
WCED Term 4 Week 2
WCED Term 4 Week 4
WCED Term 4 Week 3